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General information about Murmansk

Murmansk is located in the Northern European part of Russia, close to the Norwegian and Finnish borders, on the Kola Peninsula. The population is appr. 300 000.

Murmansk is a unique city. It is the world's largest city north of the Arctic Circle; one of the major transport, industrial and scientific centres of the Russian north.

Port of Murmansk is the largest port of the Arctic Ocean and the only port to remain ice-free all year round. The Arctic seaway stretching along the northern and eastern coast of Russia up to the Pacific Ocean takes its start from the port of Murmansk.

Climate in the region is fairly moderate due to the warm Atlantic Gulf Stream (in winter the average temperature is -10 C).

Murmansk is a city of contrasts. Surrounded by tundra, Murmansk is shrouded in darkness during the “polar night" in winter, when the sun does not appear over the horizon at all; then enjoys the “polar day”, when the sun shines day and night during two summer months.

Murmansk is a great place to visit with its unique Arctic nature and unusual natural phenomena. Well developed infrastructure, excellent restaurants and hotels will make your visit comfortable and enjoyable.

As a visitor you will never be bored. Discovering the city's highlights, as well as shopping, fishing, hiking, downhill skiing - tourists from all over the world find a lot of possibilities to enjoy their stay in the city and region.

Murmansk was founded during the reign of the Nicholas II Romanov, on October 4th, 1916 and was originally called Romanov-on-Murman. The foundation of the city is connected with WW I. Russia was isolated from allies in this war, therefore it was decided to built a sea port and connect this port with the Russian capital Petrograd by the rail. In 1917 the town was renamed Murmansk.

Before 20th century the Kola Penincula was inhabited only by the Saami people and few Russian settlers. Old Russian settlements have preserved until now. The Saami have their own culture, with its centre in Lovozero.

The hardest time for Murmansk was during World War II. The city was heavily bombed day and night for 40 months and was almost leveled to the ground. But it still lived, worked, handled convoys from the allied countries. In the post war period the city has been restored and rebuild anew. During its short history Murmansk witnessed four wars, and unsurprisingly, many places of interest here are connected with the wars.


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